Spring flowers are the most desirable, they are associated with warm sun rays, the imminent onset of summer. Apparently, this explains the great popularity of irises - already from the beginning of May, lush buds of all shades of the rainbow open on the flower beds of suburban areas. A huge number of species (about 800) allows you to choose flowers in the right combination and, together with other plants, create compositions of amazing beauty. Let's consider in more detail how the bulbous irises are planted and taken care of.
Soil preparation: drainage and feeding
Irises are not particularly demanding, but there are several points that should be considered. They are not recommended:
- waterlogged soil;
- mineral-poor soil;
- constant shadow.
Planting on an artificial slope serves as protection against excessive moisture. If the groundwater rises close to the roots, you should build a small elevation with a slope to the south and arrange a drainage system. To do this, it is enough to raise the flower bed by 20 cm and ensure the outflow of rainwater.
There are several ways to plant irises: single, bush, group, free sowing. Flowers with large buds are used for single planting, with small ones for group
A sample of a flower bed with irises: 1 - Purple Voice hyacinth; 2 - tulip Flashpoint; 3 - daffodil New Baby; 4 - iris mesh Kantab; 5 - Scylla Siberian Alba
Irises love sunlight, but they can spend some of their time in the shade, so it is advisable to set up a flower garden in an unshaded or slightly shaded area. Before planting, the soil is enriched with organic fertilizers, then carefully dug up and loosened. Manure is usually applied in advance, about a year before planting.
The ideal soil for bulbous is lime. An alkaline reaction is provided by lime, chalk or eggshells introduced into the soil during digging. It is better to dilute the sandy soil with humus, ash and about 40 g of superphosphate (per 1 m²) will not be superfluous. Clay, on the contrary, is better to dilute with coarse sand and add a little humus or compost to enrich it.
Related article: Liming the soil in the garden: why, when and how is it necessary to do it?
Do not limit yourself to traditional flower beds located in recreation areas and along paths. The original stump flower bed looks much more attractive!
The place of planting flowers can not be changed for about 10 years, hybrid varieties - 5 years. The ability of irises to grow rapidly leads to a deficiency of nutrients in the soil, as a result of which a change of place is required, that is, a transfer of the flower bed.
Autumn is the time for planting bulbs
First of all, we invite you to watch a video on the topic:
Planting features depend on the variety. In temperate climates, iridodictiums, Turkish and Caucasian, as well as their hybrids, perfectly take root and tolerate winter. We choose a dry, open place and dig shallow holes - up to 7 cm. We fill in the bulbs so that the soil does not fit tightly to them, and it is better to add a little sand to its composition. To protect plants from fungal diseases, the purchased bulbs are pretreated with Fundazol or Benlat. In the summer, after the stem and leaves die off, we separate the small daughter bulbs, which are necessary for further reproduction.
One or more varieties of irises are used to decorate flower beds. A variety of colors allows you to create compositions of rare beauty
Juno bulbs are large and have fleshy roots that renew each year, which should be handled with great care. If the roots fall off, the plant will die. The best period for planting bulbous irises in open ground is the last week of September or the first decade of October. The bulbs are carefully lowered into the pits so as not to damage the roots, and sprinkled with a layer of earth up to 6 cm thick.
The planting hole should be relatively small - about two bulb heights, therefore, for small iris bulbs, a depth of 4 to 7 cm is suitable
Summer preparation consists in the fact that the bulbs are dug up after the iris wilts and dried in a room with a temperature of 22-25 ° C. The second option is to cover the flower bed with a film, protecting it from rain, until the beginning of October. Further reproduction of Juno is carried out either by daughter bulbs, or by seeds, which are sown in special boxes. Seed boxes, like bulbs, must be dried. Seedlings appear, as a rule, in the second year.
The distance between future plants during planting can be different: the minimum is considered to be a gap of two bulb widths (as a result, a dense bush is formed), the maximum is up to half a meter (usually single irises with lush buds are planted in this way).
Using a plastic growing basket
At the supermarket you can buy a simple but very handy bulb basket.
In order to remove part of the turf, we put a plastic basket on the desired area and, using a shovel or a scoop, we circle the contour to a depth of 12 cm.
Carefully remove the separated piece of turf, and deepen the resulting hole by about 20-30 cm so that the basket can fully fit in it
Pour fertilizer at the bottom of the pit, then install the basket. We fill it with a dense wet layer of fertile soil and plant the bulbs
We cover the planted bulbs with a thin layer of earth and return the removed piece of turf back. Thus, the bulbs will spend the whole winter in favorable conditions for themselves.
The basket is convenient in that it can be easily taken out of the ground and, together with the planted bulbs, can be moved to a drying room.
How to properly care for irises?
In addition to timely planting and soil preparation, it is necessary to take care of plants during their flowering: early irises begin to bloom in May, late ones - in June. Competent care of bulbous irises consists in regular fertilizing and protection from pests. Another point of care for flowers is watering. During the rainy season, irises should not be watered, and in dry times, moderate irrigation is necessary strictly in the evening.
It is important to choose the right varieties of flowers. For example, Siberian irises are considered the most frost-resistant, so they easily endure winter in northern latitudes.
Application of mineral fertilizers
In the spring, after the snow has melted, we wait until the top layer of the soil is completely dry in order to apply fertilizers. Ready-made solutions and dry universal mixtures, for example, Reasil or Good power, are suitable. We place the required amount of top dressing in the top layer (or simply scatter it over the soil surface around the bulbs), then carefully loosen it, trying not to catch the roots.
One of the three-step options for feeding hybrid irises from the first year of flowering:
- nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus (2: 3: 1) - in spring on dry soil;
- the same composition, but in a different proportion (3: 3: 1) - at the time of bud formation;
- potassium, phosphorus (1: 1) - 1 month after the beginning of the flowering period.
Regular and correctly dosed feeding guarantees high decorative qualities, rapid development and long flowering. One of the important periods in the life of a plant is the formation of flower buds. Fertilizing at this stage ensures a lush, full bloom the next year.
Fertilizers for bulbous plants contain lignohumate, which performs several important functions: promotes rapid growth, increases plant resistance to diseases, increases decorative effect
It is not necessary to make your own complex fertilizer for irises, the store sells ready-made formulations for bulbous in two forms: solution and dry mixture
Monitor the amount of nitrogen carefully. Excess of this substance causes fatliquoring - a process when the leaves develop remarkably, but flowering is completely absent.
Preventive work to protect against pests
Despite the short flowering period, the cultivation of bulbous irises is accompanied by protective measures. To prevent the appearance of uninvited parasites, the plants should be sprayed on duty every two weeks. It is necessary to start from the period when the leaves reach a length of 10 cm. Usually they use Malathion (helps against herbivorous mites) or universal pesticides. With the beginning of the appearance of buds, the treatment is stopped.
Most often, irises have a disease of the roots and bulbs - bacteriosis, which causes rotting of individual parts. The plant is dug up, diseased parts are removed, washed in potassium permanganate and transplanted to another place
How to determine the disease in bearded irises? Usually a healthy plant has a bunch of 7-9 leaves, while in a sick plant no more than 5. There is a problem with the formation of flower buds. For treatment, the plant is dug up, cleaned of rot and insects, and treated with an antiseptic. If the irises are affected by thrips, the natural waxy coating on the leaves is disturbed.
Prevention consists in the competent preparation of the bulbs for the next year - removing the old stem along with the leaves, peduncles and flowers, in which harmful insects may remain.
The traditional care of irises guarantees their extraordinarily bright bloom and the possibility of creating unique flower beds.
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A plant such as iris (Iris) is also called a cockerel or an iris. This perennial plant belongs to the rhizome genus, to the iris or iris family (Iridaceae). You can meet such flowers in almost every corner of the planet. This genus unites about 700 different species. The name of such a flower is translated as "rainbow". This plant was named by Hippocrates himself in honor of the rainbow goddess Iris. The legend says that at the moment when Prometheus gave people fire, a rainbow shone - it was the jubilation of nature. This rainbow shone throughout the day and night, and after the sunlight illuminated the earth, people were amazed at the sight of unusually beautiful flowers called irises. They looked so much like a rainbow. Florence (which means "blooming") received such a name from the Romans for the fact that a lot of irises grew in the fields located near the city. This amazing plant has been grown for about 2 thousand years. It is a wonderful decoration for any garden, and also valuable raw materials are extracted from irises, from which essences for the perfumery industry are made.
Part 1. General rules of planting and care
Despite the fact that iris is considered an unpretentious crop, you will need to follow the simple rules of planting and care. It is also important to consider the type and variety of the plant, since each species has its own characteristics.
How, when and where to plant irises?
Before planting irises, you need to choose the right place for planting. The groundwater level at the site should not be too high. If the groundwater is still too close to the soil surface, then you will need to make a drainage layer or add a layer of soil, raising the area by about 15 cm.
The plant prefers the sun, so the area should be open and well lit. In the shade, iris does not bloom as intensely and for a long time as in the sun.
It is also important that the site is protected from winds. If such a place cannot be found, then it will be possible in the future to use the supports for tying tall plants.
It is possible to plant irises with bulbs in the spring in the ground... In this case, we are talking about bulbous irises. As you know, irises are rhizome and bulbous. Planting dates in spring - from March to May, the main thing is that the soil warms up to at least 10 degrees Celsius. Flowering is likely already in June, but very often irises bloom only the next year, or the flowering turns out to be rather weak.
Planting irises in autumn should come true a few weeks before frost... Better - in a month. The main thing is that the plant has time to take root before the cold comes. Otherwise, freezing or even death of the culture is likely.
But most often, planting is carried out in the summer, starting from the middle of it. Experienced gardeners recommend planting it is in the summer, because before winter the irises will have time to lay buds, and already at the end of spring next year they will begin to bloom successfully without the risk of freezing in winter.
Video on the topic "Planting irises with bulbs in the ground"
What soil do irises like - acidic or alkaline? Not that and not that. Irises prefer neutral or slightly acidic soil... On acidic soil, the plant will not delight with its flowers, and also undergoes a bacterial disease. Therefore, if the plant has already been planted on such a soil, you will need to add lime, chalk or ash to it to neutralize the soil.
What is correct and incorrect fit? Incorrect landing occurs excessive deepening of the root system into the ground , which complicates the process of cultural development. This will negatively affect flowering. It can also cause the plant to die.
Stages of planting rhizome iris:
- Dig a hole and make a small earthen mound in its center
- Place the central root on this hill and distribute the lateral roots on the sides of the hole
- When planting rhizome iris, remember that the rhizome should be almost level with the ground.
- Sprinkle the lateral roots with earth and compact, and cover the central root with sand, the layer of which should not exceed 2 cm.
Stages of planting iris bulbs:
- Make a hole and put the onion in it. The bottom of the bulb should be at the bottom
- Cover the onion with soil. The planting depth of an iris bulb is three bulb diameters. Usually this is about 10 cm. This is very important, otherwise the bulb close to the surface of the soil may freeze in winter. This is especially true for thermophilic species. The deeper the bulb is, the higher the chances of successful germination.
- The distance between the irises when planting is required to be about 10 cm.
When will the iris bloom after planting?
If the plant was planted in autumn or summer, then flowering can be seen next spring. If the planting was carried out in the spring, then it is likely that flowering will come only after a year, although often in the summer you can enjoy the flowers.
Growing from seeds
How to grow irises from seeds? There are two methods of growing iris from seed:
- Sowing seeds in September
- Sowing seeds in March.
When sowing in September, there is a risk that frosts will start late, when the seeds have time to germinate. In this case, the seedling will most likely freeze.
How to store seeds until March:
- Wrap the seeds in a damp cloth and place in a container
- Keep the container under the freezer
- After a month, transfer the container to a warm, but not too hot place.
- As soon as the seeds hatch, they need to be planted in light soil with mandatory supplementary lighting
- In May, it is already possible to transplant seedlings into open ground.
Is it possible and how to grow irises from seeds from China? The process itself is the same as when growing from harvested or purchased seeds. However, the success of growing Chinese seeds has been questioned. Most flower growers failed to grow plants (not only irises, but also other crops) from seeds from China.
How to care for irises? What kind of plant care is needed after winter? How to create favorable growing conditions for a culture?
Care for rhizome irises is minimal. After planting, it is required to carefully manually remove weeds, as well as carefully loosen the soil, since the root system of the plant is close to the ground. Subsequently, when the plant grows, weeding and loosening the soil is unnecessary.
It is required to follow a number of care rules:
- Watering the plant is required in dry weather every day, and in normal weather - about 3 times a week. Watering must be done in the evening and controlled so that drops of water do not fall on the leaves of the plant.
- To prevent the wind from breaking the stems of tall irises, they need to be tied to supports
- In bulbous species, it is necessary to remove old, wilted leaves, and also cut off the peduncles at the end of flowering.
- Fertilizers must be applied three times:
- In the springtime
- During budding
- Within a month after the end of flowering - for bulbous plants, and for rhizome plants - in August.
Top dressing in the spring should be in the form of fertilizers with a high content of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. During the budding period, the same fertilizers are required, but the amount of potassium and nitrogen must be increased. After the end of flowering, fertilizing is applied with the content of phosphorus and potassium.
Caring for irises after flowering includes the following steps:
- Shelter for the winter
- Soil fertilization with mineral dressings
- Pruning flower stalks and stems.
What should be the wintering of irises?
It is recommended to cover young specimens for the winter.... This also applies to thermophilic iris varieties. Spruce branches or dry foliage are suitable as a shelter. With the arrival of spring, do not hesitate to remove the shelter, but do it as early as possible. You can also dig up bulbs of heat-loving species for the winter.
Pruning Germanic or bearded iris.
Pruning is done in order to preserve the attractive appearance of the plant and prevent the iris from wasting energy on seed formation.
How to trim:
- Pruning is done at the end of flowering
- Faded flowers are removed along with a green receptacle
- You can also remove the flower stems. At the same time, it is important to preserve the leaves
- Also, in the spring after winter, you can remove old, wilted leaves.
- All manipulations are carried out manually or using sharp scissors.
Caring for irises in the spring in the country includes:
- Removing the shelter when the threat of frost passes
- Application of dressings - immediately after removing the shelter and during the period of bud formation
- Treatment for diseases is required in the spring.
Can irises be grown at home?
It is possible, but for home cultivation it is better to use dwarf varieties. In this case, it is required to observe a number of rules:
- Adequate sunshine, especially during flowering
- The temperature of the content should be no higher than 20 degrees
- Watering the iris is required once a week, and during the flowering period, increase the frequency of watering up to 3 times a week
- Top dressing is required to be applied two weeks after planting, during the budding period and at the end of flowering
- The air must be dry.
The choice of planting material
When buying iris planting material, you should carefully look at:
- firstly - by the size of the rhizome itself, because the larger it is, the better the plant takes root, grows faster and blooms earlier
- secondly, are the rhizomes healthy, are there any signs of diseases on them
- thirdly - are the vegetative buds well formed, but at the same time there should not be active vegetative growth
- fourthly, the rhizomes should be dry, but not overdried.
In the event that you buy planting material on the market, then the surest way to purchase exactly the variety that you want is to try to buy a tuber along with a peduncle.
And if you already have irises growing and they have reached the age of 4-5 years, then planting material for further reproduction of irises can be obtained by dividing the rhizomes of these plants.
Irises grow in breadth over time and the center of the bush gradually disappears. Therefore, it is advisable to update the planting every five years.
Bulbous irises, planting and care
Unbelievably airy and colorful presenters of a family of irises pick up a half of the gourds at first glance. True, we are not very fair about them: our cads decorate tall root-bearing plant species, while onion irises are unnecessarily neglected. Among the lovers of flowers, there is an opinion that the bugs of onion cultures are not worth the effort spent on painstaking care for them, but this is not the case at all! Accurately observing the technique of planting and growing onion butterflies, one can achieve impressive results.
- Description of species of onion iris
- Iridodictium, or iris reticulate, iris peticulate
- Juno, or iris pearl
- Xythium, or iris gallandic
- How to bring onion irises: important recommendations
- Planting onion irises in spring and autumn: step-by-step instructions
- Step one. Prepare the onions for seating
- Step two. Prepare the soil
- Step three. Get the onions right
- Peculiarities of growing onion iris
- How to soften onion irises
- Diseases and pests of onion iris
Description of species of onion iris
Beautifully blooming onion culture is divided into 3 types.
Iridodictium, or iris reticulate, iris peticulate
Bright early-grown beauties compete in grace and charm with crocuses, prunes, galantus and scyllas. Iridodictium is the most miniature type of onion iris. The height of an adult plant does not exceed 15 cm.
In spring, the flowers appear from the beginning, after casting. When the reticulated iris blooms, its moldings only stretch up to 10 cm, but after some time they increase up to 45 cm. Blossoming lasts about two weeks. Near the beginning of June, the leaves of iris turn yellow and wither a little later - the plant is ready for rest. The onions of iridodictium are known for their frost resistance and in regions with a mild climate, they winter in the land for a while.
One of the most popular and strong varieties of onion net toffee is Katarina Hodzhkin. A plant can be found in one area for more than 5 years, without requiring obligatory digging and drying.
Juno, or iris pearl
Juno is a rare aristocratic onion culture. It blooms from April to May, then the flowers and castings will wither away. The plant grows in height from 20 to 40 cm. Several layers of leaves, reminiscent of the shape of a serp, surround the stem in two regular rows. One flower keeps on itself 2 - 5 flowers of a pale yellow or pale lilac color.
For the rest of the plant leaves in the middle - end of June. During this period, the fleshy onions of toffee are dug up, carefully dried and in September they survive. Unlike the reticulum iris, the young woman does not differ in good resistance to low temperature, therefore, for the winter she is protected with a paddle or fallen leaves.
The most beautiful and promising varieties of the species: young Bukhara, Uralian, deep, replacing.
Xythium, or iris gallandic
Despite the prevalence and availability, in the family of iric ksifiums are the most pertinent. More often than not, in our cades, onion gallandian irises are sprinkled - these are the xyphiums. Their flowers are fond of a different color palette: rich and passionate deep, deep blue, yellow, creamy, white. Most of the Dutch iris are bicolored. A beautiful and smooth mixing of colors is observed near the middle of the bud.
The average size of the onion of the xyphium is distinguished by its bottle shape. After the landing, narrow curls at the tips of the leaves of a saturated green color do not grow out of it. Plants are unbranched, decorated with single flowers.
The plant does not tolerate cold at all - the temperature of -10 ° C is detrimental to it. This kind of feature completely eliminates the question of whether it is necessary to dig up onion irises: in order to preserve the crunchy crust until the next year, before the chill out. By the way, the cost of the Dutch iris is very democratic, therefore, many flower growers do not bother themselves with storing onions and consider the type of culture for this
Talking about the diversity of the Dutch iris can be infinitely long: the xyphyums are very much, but they are all incredibly beautiful. Estimate the photo of the Dutch onion irises of various varieties:
The Xyphyums of the Spanish corta are even more vulnerable than their Dutch companions, therefore they are inevitably extracted from the soil for the winter, even in the south of the country. The variety of English xyphyums is more frost-free and grows without problems in the middle zone of Russia, but in sale these plants are rarely encountered.
How to bring onion irises: important recommendations
All types of onion iris are very sensitive to this water, therefore, immediately abandon the idea of releasing them in an area with a high level of ground water and good drainage. Ideal soil for onion butterflies, light, nutritious, with ample drainage. Sandy soil, fed with organic fertilizers, fully meets these characteristics. The light-loving iris is best survived in a well-lit area with sun. Even partial shading will not allow the growth of exuberant bloom.
The time when onion irises are sown depends on the type of plant. So, the most suitable period for the landing of Iridodictia and Juno is the early autumn. Ideally, you need to place the onions in the ground at the beginning of September. You can do it later, it is important that this happens 2 weeks before the first freeze occurs. If the iris onions appear in the soil later, they will not have time to let down the roots and will meet the winter completely unprepared - the plant, in most cases, will die. The landing and further care for onion irises can be postponed and are valid, only take into account that spring irises can bloom only after a year.
The Xyphyums, especially "Gollanders" and "Ispans", grow well in March-April, when the sun's rays have already warmed the soil up to 10 ° C. Plants will be happy with abundant flowering in June-July.
Planting onion irises in spring and autumn: step-by-step instructions Step one. Prepare the onions for seating
Onion plants are a luscious piece for fungal rot. Before loading the onions into the ground, carefully examine and assess their condition.
The feed material is usually bought at the end of winter or at the beginning of spring. It is safe to choose irises not in spontaneous markets, but in specialized points of sale, where the seller is not responsible for observing the temperature regime during the period. Healthy onions - smooth, smooth, without dents, cuts and stains. It is covered with a dense shiny shell of golden-brown shade.
Before the planting material is processed with special drugs that protect young plants from fungus. To do this, you can use a strong solution of manganese, Maxim or Fundazol: immerse the onions for 40 minutes in a satiating solution, stir them thoroughly and then stir them.
Step two. Prepare the soil
Dig up a suitable area and apply sand or other loosening substances there, if the soil is too thick and does not allow moisture to pass through well. Irises are extremely demanding in terms of the nutritional value of the ground, therefore, before setting off, feed the land with plenty of energy. Fresh manure for onion crops is contradicted as it can cause the development of diseases of fungal origin.
Step three. Get the onions right
Place the iris bows with the bottom down in small holes to a depth of no more than 8 cm. Observe the spacing between the pits of 10 to 15 cm. Do not water fresh plantings: for a successful acclimatization of onions, it will be sufficient that they are found in the soil. It is also necessary to sprinkle the wells with onions with the mind: the layer of soil over the future iris should correspond to the three diameters of the onions themselves (about 8 - 10 cm). Observance of this recommendation will help iris get through the winter cold. In the words of experienced flower growers, a deliberate increase in the planting depth of heat-loving xyphyums up to 15 - 20 cm allows them to preserve their onions in the winter and turn them into willows.
So that the wintering of the xyphyums, sprouted in autumn, was comfortable, cover the landings with a peat mulching layer, and put a paddle or dry leaves on top.
Peculiarities of growing onion iris
Irises will inevitably appreciate the abundant and regular water flow in the spring, during the period of vegetative growth. In summer, the onion plant rests, so the onions should be kept warm and dry. Such ideal conditions can be provided for iris by scooping up the onions, drying them and placing them in a box with sawdust until late. The temperature for this should be in the range of 18 - 25 ° C. This is an obligatory procedure for tender juniors, iridodictia can be left in the ground over the summer. But if the summer has come with abundant rain and moisture, the landings of the matted iris are protected with a film or ruberoid.
Snowy and mild winters Iridodictia and Juno will survive quite well. But in infinite seasons with low temperatures, the soil over the onions needs additional heating. A reliable "blanket" fit is a ladder, fallen dry sheets or lutrasil.
Responsible care for onion irises assumes their proper storage. In order to guarantee to protect the xyphyums from freezing, in the fall they are dug up and kept in a cold, but not frost-free room (in a rak or refrigerator)
How to soften onion irises
Receiving the sweep of your favorite colors has its own special features. Onion irises actively raze and in 2 - 3 years will form a whole nest of onions. The first children appear already in a year after the landing. In the summer, irises dig up and divide the nests into large and small onions. Large ones dry and store until autumn, but do not dry the children, immediately surviving them for nurturing. The "young man" blooms in 2 - 3 years.
Diseases and pests of onion iris
If the weather and climatic conditions are in line with the optimal conditions for growing jellyfish, the flowers start to get sick and suffer from various pests. It is very easy to reveal the originally contaminated bunches of irises - pay attention to the number of their leaves. A healthy plant grows from 7 to 9 leaves, while a weak iris will only be supplied with 5 leaves.
At the beginning, the greatest danger for onion plants is represented by the guttural caterpillars of the cobweb: they eat the leaves and destroy the flowers. To protect against pests, a threat is introduced into the ground at the base of irises. Thrips are still one of the non-lovers of onion plants. Some of them usually accumulate in the rear corners of the leaves. To get rid of them, try sprinkling the leaves with diluted carbophores (20 - 30 g per 10 liters of water) a few times. From slugs in damp weather, it will help you with super-photo, which is sprinkled on the soil in the area with toffee.
Irreparable against onion-like plants will cause bacterial root rot. If you notice the problem in time, you can still save the iris. For this, the rotten plots are cut with a sharp knife until healthy tissue The microorganisms that caused the development of rot die, if they grow the soil around the root and heat the cut off place under direct solar rays.
Still one more dangerous disease for iris - all forms of leaf spot. As soon as yellow spots appear on one of the bushes, all the rides are treated with a fungicide with enhanced action (Fundazol, Kvadris, Fitrinovo, Mocparinovo) If the spots have had time to "crawl" on a few bunches, remove a few processing of iris with an interval of 7 - 8 days.